Frascati Manual 2015

Guidelines for Collecting and Reporting Data on Research and Experimental Development

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The internationally recognised methodology for collecting and using R&D statistics, the OECD's Frascati Manual is an essential tool for statisticians  and science and innovation policy makers worldwide. It includes definitions of basic concepts, data collection guidelines, and classifications for compiling R&D statistics.  This updated edition contains improved guidelines reflecting recent changes in the way R&D takes place and is funded and the wider use of R&D statistics and definitions. It provides new chapters dedicated to the pratical aspects of collecting R&D data in different sectors, as well as new guidance on capturing different aspects of public support for R&D such as tax incentives.

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Higher education R&D

The Higher education sector, because of its policy relevance, is unique to the manual and has no counterpart in the System of National Accounts (SNA). This chapter defines the Higher education sector and in doing this, draws upon existing definitions of tertiary education programmes, and of formal education. As the objective of the definition is to capture all research and experimental development (R&D) activity in the sector, the definition includes all research institutes, centres, experimental stations and clinics that have their R&D activities under the direct control of, or administered by, tertiary education institutions. The Higher education sector differs across countries so the first task is to identify the institutions belonging to the sector and then to collect and report the R&D statistics in such a way as to support international comparison. The chapter provides guidance on identifying institutions in the sector and on measuring R&D expenditures, flows between institutions within and external to the sector and the human resources committed to R&D in the sector.

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