Frascati Manual 2015

Guidelines for Collecting and Reporting Data on Research and Experimental Development

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The internationally recognised methodology for collecting and using R&D statistics, the OECD's Frascati Manual is an essential tool for statisticians  and science and innovation policy makers worldwide. It includes definitions of basic concepts, data collection guidelines, and classifications for compiling R&D statistics.  This updated edition contains improved guidelines reflecting recent changes in the way R&D takes place and is funded and the wider use of R&D statistics and definitions. It provides new chapters dedicated to the pratical aspects of collecting R&D data in different sectors, as well as new guidance on capturing different aspects of public support for R&D such as tax incentives.

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Understanding how knowledge creation and dissemination contributes to economic growth and societal wellbeing requires a sound evidence base. Throughout history, the outcomes from research and development (R&D) have transformed people’s lives and societies in multiple ways, as well as the natural environment we are part of. This realisation has created a sustained demand among policy analysts and decision makers for documenting the level and nature of both human and financial resources that different countries, regions, firms and institutions devote to such endeavour, as a first step towards learning how to direct them towards desired objectives. Supporting this evidence need through internationally comparable statistics and a common language is the main objective of this manual.

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