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Boosting Kazakhstan's National Intellectual Property System for Innovation

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National intellectual property (IP) systems can play a pivotal role in fostering innovation and knowledge diffusion. This report analyses Kazakhstan’s IP system with regards to its support of the country’s innovation performance. In particular, it assesses the organisation and governance of Kazakhstan's IP system as well as the needs and challenges faced by different groups of actual and potential IP users – ranging from universities and public research institutions to state-owned enterprises and small businesses. The review provides a comprehensive set of statistics describing the use of IP in Kazakhstan in recent years, identifies the system’s strengths and weaknesses, and presents a range of specific policy recommendations to address existing challenges.

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Statistical annex

All currency conversions presented in this Review have been calculated using purchasing power parity (PPP) conversion factors provided by the World Bank World Development Indicators (http://data.worldbank.org/indic ator/PA.NUS.PPP). The PPP conversion factor is the number of units of a country’s currency required to buy the same amount of goods and services in the domestic market that one US dollar would buy in the United States. Using the PPP conversion factor represents a more accurate estimate of the real purchasing power within a country than market exchange rates, which describe the purchasing power of a country’s currency only with regard to internationally traded goods. Figure A1 presents the evolution of the Kazakhstani tenge to US dollar (KZT/USD) PPP conversion factor and the KZT/USD official exchange rate.

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