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Artificial Intelligence in Society

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The artificial intelligence (AI) landscape has evolved significantly from 1950 when Alan Turing first posed the question of whether machines can think. Today, AI is transforming societies and economies. It promises to generate productivity gains, improve well-being and help address global challenges, such as climate change, resource scarcity and health crises. Yet, as AI applications are adopted around the world, their use can raise questions and challenges related to human values, fairness, human determination, privacy, safety and accountability, among others. This report helps build a shared understanding of AI in the present and near-term by mapping the AI technical, economic, use case and policy landscape and identifying major public policy considerations. It is also intended to help co-ordination and consistency with discussions in other national and international fora.

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AI policies and initiatives

Artificial intelligence (AI) policies and initiatives are gaining momentum in governments, companies, technical organisations, civil society and trade unions. Intergovernmental initiatives on AI are also emerging. This chapter collects AI policies, initiatives and strategies from different stakeholders at both national and international levels around the world. It finds that, in general, national government initiatives focus on using AI to improve productivity and competitiveness with actions plans to strengthen: i) factor conditions such as AI research capability; ii) demand conditions; iii) related and supporting industries; iv) firm strategy, structure and competition; as well as v) domestic governance and co-ordination. International initiatives include the OECD Recommendation of the Council on Artificial Intelligence, which represents the first intergovernmental policy guidelines for AI and identifies principles and policy priorities for responsible stewardship of trustworthy AI.

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