Materials on the Responsibility of States for Internationally Wrongful Acts

image of Materials on the Responsibility of States for Internationally Wrongful Acts
The present collection of materials reproduces the text of the State responsibility articles, with commentaries thereto, as presented in the Yearbook of the International Law Commission, together with the compilation of decisions recording 154 instances in which international courts, tribunals and other bodies referred to the articles and commentaries during the period from 1973 to 1996 when the draft articles were adopted on first reading, from 1996 to their adoption on second reading in 2001, and up to 31 January 2010.



Circumstances precluding wrongfulness

Chapter V sets out six circumstances precluding the wrongfulness of conduct that would otherwise not be in conformity with the international obligations of the State concerned. The existence in a given case of a circumstance precluding wrongfulness in accordance with this chapter provides a shield against an otherwise well-founded claim for the breach of an international obligation. The six circumstances are: consent (art. 20), self-defence (art. 21), countermeasures (art. 22), force majeure (art. 23), distress (art. 24) and necessity (art. 25). Article 26 makes it clear that none of these circumstances can be relied on if to do so would conflict with a peremptory norm of general international law. Article 27 deals with certain consequences of the invocation of one of these circumstances.


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