The Missing Entrepreneurs

Policies for Inclusive Entrepreneurship in Europe

image of The Missing Entrepreneurs

Entrepreneurship development is an important requirement for achieving of smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. It is also a means to respond to new economic challenges, to create jobs and to fight social and financial exclusion. The impact of the global financial and economic crisis calls for giving entrepreneurship and self-employment a stronger role in economic and social development policies.

This book collects and synthesizes information and data on entrepreneurship activities in Europe, focusing on people that are at the greatest risk of social exclusion. These groups include young people, older people, women, ethnic minorities and migrants, people with disabilities and the unemployed.

English Also available in: German, French

Inclusive entrepreneurship over the business life cycle

This chapter presents evidence on business start-up and operation by disadvantaged and under-represented groups using data from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor, an international household survey. Data are presented for women, young people, older people, ethnic minorities and immigrants, those with low education and income levels, the disabled and the unemployed. In addition to the self-employed, this survey also identifies those who are trying to start or already running their own business, including those who employ others. The data suggest that, taken together, the disadvantaged and under-represented groups account for the majority of business start-up activities in Europe. However, rates of business start-up and operation within each group tend to be lower than in the mainstream population. The chapter also presents information from various sources on the prior labour market experience and motivations of self-employed people and people starting businesses.

English Also available in: German, French


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