Poland: Key Issues and Policies

image of Poland: Key Issues and Policies

The rapid growth of entrepreneurship and small firms has been one of the greatest successes in post-Communist transformation in Poland.  SMEs have greatly contributed to employment, investment and value added in the Polish economy.  However, key barriers to further growth remain in the business environment for SMEs and entrepreneurs.  This book sets out the current SME and entrepreneurship climate, reviews SME and entrepreneurship issues and policies at national and local levels, and provides observations and recommendations for improving and supporting entrepreneurship and SMEs in Poland.

English Also available in: Polish


Executive Summary

The rapid growth of small, private companies over the past 20 years has been one of the greatest successes of the post-Communist transformation in Poland. The small and medium-sized enterprise (SME) sector today contributes 69% of employment, nearly 60% of turnover and 56% of value added in the Polish economy. As in most countries, SMEs allocate relatively little, less than 5% of revenues, to fixed investment and their productivity is less than in large enterprises. But productivity in the sector, especially in micro-enterprises, has nevertheless risen more rapidly than in large enterprises. Both entry and exit rates for enterprises, almost entirely small ones, are higher in Poland than on average in the EU. This indicates considerable dynamism in the sector which has contributed to the progressive diversification of the Polish economy since the end of central planning.


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