State-Owned Enterprises in the Middle East and North Africa

Engines of Development and Competitiveness?

image of State-Owned Enterprises in the Middle East and North Africa

State-owned enterprises (SOEs) are an important feature of the economic landscape in the Middle East and North Africa region and yet, their contribution to the local economies has not been subject to a systematic investigation. SOEs in the region are generally perceived as inefficient and subject to sub-optimal governance arrangements but at the same time, and somewhat paradoxically, they are often charged developmental mandates that typically go beyond their stated commercial objectives. This phenomenon owes to the historically prominent role of the state in the economic development in the region and the recently renewed interest in using select SOEs as anchors of national industrialisation and competitiveness strategies.

This publication contributes to the limited existing literature on the role of SOEs in the economic development by examining the contribution of MENA SOEs to industrial development, diversification, poverty elimination and the provision of goods and services to the public more generally. Second, it provides an overview of the diverse mandates and roles of MENA SOEs and assesses the costs of these obligations with a view to isolate ownership and governance practices that have contributed to the success of some companies and poor performance of others. Recommendations to policymakers as well as management and boards of SOEs are made based on these observations at the end of the publication.

English Arabic


Introduction to state capitalism in the MENA region

The purpose of this introductory chapter is to provide a context to the emergence and the ongoing development of state capitalism in the Middle East and North Africa region. This chapter presents the factors leading to the establishment of state-owned enterprises in the region and examines diverse considerations such as industrialisation objectives, emergence of sovereign wealth vehicles, and the slowdown in privatisation that have resulted in the constant and important role of MENA governments as owners of commercial assets. The chapter also comments on the clarity of the scope of MENA SOE sectors which has been improving in some jurisdictions but still needs to be clarified in order to allow for a more informed discussion of the options for improving SOE performance and efficiency.


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