Lobbyists, Governments and Public Trust, Volume 2

Promoting Integrity through Self-regulation

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This second volume of OECD's study on lobbying examines regulation and self-regulation of lobbying. It includes chapters defining and examining lobbying, describing the role of professional lobbying associations, exploring various codes of conduct and examining specific codes in various countries, examining lobbyists' attitudes toward regulation and self-regulation, and exploring various options for enhancing transparency and accountability.



Lobbyist Regulatory Regimes in Europe

This chapter outlines major developments and trends in lobbyist regulatory regimes in selected European countries, the European Parliament and the European Commission.As indicated in the chapter, the scope and reach of European regulations are considerably limited than similar regulations in the United States and Canada. For example, most lobbyists registries are voluntary (European Commission and European Parliament, France, Germany, Hungary) and constitute primarily a registration system to enter Parliamentary buildings. Moreover, voluntary registration has not received a significant response from lobbyists. For example, some 5 102 individuals and 1 871 organisations registered with the European Parliament for passes, even though there are an estimated 15 000 lobbyists active in Brussels.The chapter also notes an important development in France with the recognition of the lobbying profession. Previously, the lobbying phenomenon was not recognised in France on the grounds that parliamentarians are elected to serve the general interest and should not represent special/group interests.


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