Illicit Trade

Converging Criminal Networks

image of Illicit Trade

This report assesses the magnitude, flows and drivers of illicit trade and the illegal economy including: narcotics, human trafficking, wildlife, sports betting, counterfeit medicines, alcohol and tobacco. The negative socio-economic impacts that these markets have in consumer countries are as worrisome as the goverance gaps that are exploited in source countries. This report examines each illicit sector in terms of the geographic sources, destinations and key trade routes, the current trend of infiltration by organized crime networks, and good practices or future policy solutions with which to combat illicit trade within the various sectors.



Trafficking in persons

Trends and patterns

It is estimated that thousands of people have lost their lives attempting to migrate to Europe in 2015. The migrant crisis has drawn unprecedented attention to the dangers of human smuggling, but it has done little to improve understanding that the crimes of “human trafficking” and “smuggling of migrants” are distinct forms of organized crime. Smuggling is a crime against the state, involving facilitation of illegal crossing of borders for a fee. Trafficking is a crime against a person, involving the ongoing exploitation of another human being in forced labour or forced prostitution. This chapter provides aggregate information about the profiles of trafficked persons worldwide, thee numbers of persons trafficked, where they come from and where they go, some of the most oft cited estimates about the market value of trafficked persons. The social harms of this criminal activity are readily apparent, thus the chapter outlines some of the economic harms to source and destination countries.


This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error