Governance Frameworks to Counter Illicit Trade

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This report examines governance frameworks to counter illicit trade. It looks at the adequacy and effectiveness of sanctions and penalties applicable, the steps parties engaged in illicit trade take to lower the risk of detection - for example through small shipments - and the use of free trade zones as hubs for managing trade in illicit products. It also identifies gaps in enforcement that may need to be addressed. The report provides an overview of selected enforcement issues in BRICS economies (Brazil, China, India, the Russian Federation and South Africa).



Executive Summary

Transnational criminal networks profit from trafficking and illegal trade in narcotics, arms, persons, tobacco, counterfeit consumer goods, and wildlife. Billions of dollars from these activities flow through the global economy each year, distorting local economies, diminishing legitimate business revenues, eroding social conditions and fuelling conflicts. This report on governance frameworks to counter illicit trade was prepared under the OECD Task Force on Countering Illicit Trade (TF-CIT). It promotes tractable policy reforms and fosters international cooperation aimed at the reduction and deterrence of the risk of illicit trade. It draws on a network of specialists from multiple countries and economies, as part of the OECD High Level Risk Forum (HLRF), which works with governments to better understand the full range of complex risks and threats.


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