Governance Frameworks to Counter Illicit Trade

image of Governance Frameworks to Counter Illicit Trade

This report examines governance frameworks to counter illicit trade. It looks at the adequacy and effectiveness of sanctions and penalties applicable, the steps parties engaged in illicit trade take to lower the risk of detection - for example through small shipments - and the use of free trade zones as hubs for managing trade in illicit products. It also identifies gaps in enforcement that may need to be addressed. The report provides an overview of selected enforcement issues in BRICS economies (Brazil, China, India, the Russian Federation and South Africa).


Enforcement Challenges in Countering Illicit Trade in Free Trade Zones (FTZ)

This chapter examines the role of FTZs in facilitating illicit trade and other illicit activities. It offers policy based analysis and understanding of the challenges posed by FTZs, and examines the implications for the institutional capacities to counter illicit trade.


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