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Cities and Climate Change

image of Cities and Climate Change

As the hubs of economic activity, cities drive the vast majority of the world’s energy use and are major contributors to global greenhouse gas emissions. Because they are home to major infrastructure and highly concentrated populations, cities are also vulnerable to the impacts of climate change, such as rising sea levels, warmer temperatures and fiercer storms. At the same time, better urban planning and policies can reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emissions and improve the resilience of urban infrastructure to climate change, thus shaping future trends.  

This book shows how city and metropolitan regional governments working in tandem with national governments can change the way we think about responding to climate change. The chapters analyse: trends in urbanisation, economic growth, energy use and climate change; the economic benefits of climate action; the role of urban policies in reducing energy demand, improving resilience to climate change and complementing global climate policies; frameworks for multilevel governance of climate change including engagement with relevant stakeholders; and the contribution of cities to “green growth”, including the “greening” of fiscal policies, innovation and jobs. The book also explores policy tools and best practices from both OECD and some non-member countries.  

Cities and Climate Change reveals the importance of addressing climate change across all levels of government. Local involvement through “climate-conscious” urban planning and management can help achieve national climate goals and minimise tradeoffs between environmental and economic priorities at local levels. The book will be relevant to policy makers, researchers, and others with an interest in learning more about urbanisation and climate change policy. 

English

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Financial Instruments and Funding New Expenditure Needs

Measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and adapt to expected climate change impacts will put additional pressure on city budgets and increase the need for additional public resources. Chapter 9 discusses opportunities to reform existing sub-national and national revenue sources as well as new forms of financing for urban climate change initiatives. A number of existing fiscal instruments and incentives are already at cities’ disposal, including taxes, fees and grants, and these could be considered as instruments for achieving climate change and urban sustainability goals. Carbon markets and access to financial capital may emerge as promising new funding sources, particularly if national and international policy makers decide to adapt them to better accommodate the multi-sectoral nature of many urban mitigation projects.

English

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