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Budgeting and Public Expenditures in OECD Countries 2019

image of Budgeting and Public Expenditures in OECD Countries 2019

This report provides a comprehensive view of practices and developments in the governance, implementation and performance of budgeting across OECD countries. It looks at recent practices such as the application of medium-term frameworks and the use of data and analytics to highlight the impacts of policies on concerns such as gender equality and the environment. Reflecting countries’ efforts to strengthen the insitutions supporting ficsal policy, the report also discusses trends in Parliamentary oversight, citizen participation, transparency, infrastructure governance and the management of fiscal risks.

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Budgeting institutions, rules and frameworks

In most OECD countries, the legislature has a constitutional authority over expenditure and revenue raising, while the various agencies of the executive branch, including the Central Budget Authority (CBA), more commonly have a legislative grounding. Over recent years, legally-based fiscal rules have become more prevalent in OECD countries, along with complementary practices such as medium-term expenditure frameworks (MTEFs) and top-down budgeting. In most cases, however, there appear to be gaps between the normative aspirations of these budgeting tools, and their binding character in practice: enforcement mechanisms for fiscal rules, MTEFs and top-down approaches are either weak or unclear. Some countries, however, appear to have been relatively successful at introducing consistent national frameworks which help the government to manage their public finances effectively and sustainably over the medium term.

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