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Anti-corruption Reforms in Eastern Europe and Central Asia

Progress and Challenges, 2009-2013

image of Anti-corruption Reforms in Eastern Europe and Central Asia

During several past years countries in Eastern Europe and Central Asia have introduced important anti-corruption reforms. However, corruption remains high in the region. This report identifies progress achieved in the region as well as remaining challenges which require further action by countries. The report analyses three broad areas of anti-corruption work, including anti-corruption policies and institutions, criminalisation of corruption and law-enforcement, and measures to prevent corruption in public administration and in the business sector. The analysis is illustrated by examples of good practice from various countries and comparative cross-country data.



The report focuses on eight countries in the region which participate in the OECD/ACN initiative knows as the Istanbul Anti-Corruption Action Plan which including Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Ukraine and Uzbekistan. It also presents examples from other countries in the region to give a broader perspective for the analysis. The report covers the period between 2008 and 2012, when the second round of monitoring of Istanbul Action Plan countries was implemented, and is based on the results of this monitoring.

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Criminalising corruption and enforcement of legislation in Eastern Europe and Central Asia

Chapter 3 analyses criminalisation of corruption in Eastern Europe and Central Asia, including bribery and other corruption offences, corporate liability, definition of public official, sanctions and confiscation, statute of limitation and immunities, international co-operation and mutual legal assistance. It notes that almost all countries have achieved some progress in bringing their national legislation in compliance with international anti-corruption standards, e.g. significant reforms were directed at introducing corporate liability for corruption. However, a conservative legal doctrine remains an obstacle for full compliance with the international standards. As a result, legal gaps remain with regard to bribery and trading in influence, confiscation and immunity provisions. The Chapter also examines the capacity of law-enforcement bodies to fight corruption. Many countries have demonstrated progress in meeting international standards concerning anti-corruption law-enforcement bodies, but adequate specialisation, institutional and procedural autonomy, and resources remain an issue. Concerning the practice of investigation and prosecution of corruption cases, countries need to build up the capacity to use modern investigative methods and to conduct financial investigations.

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