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Documents de travail du Département des Affaires économiques de l'OCDE

Documents de travail du Département des affaires économiques de l’OCDE recouvrant toutes les activités de ce département : conjoncture économique, analyse politique et projections ; politique fiscale, dépenses publiques et fiscalité ; questions structurelles dont le vieillissement, la croissance et la productivité, la migration, l’environnement, le capital humain, le logement, les échanges et les investissements, les marchés de l’emploi, la réforme réglementaire, la concurrence, la santé et d’autres thèmes.

Anglais, Français

Comment favoriser une urbanisation plus inclusive en Chine

Alors que l’urbanisation était depuis longtemps freinée en Chine par diverses restrictions appliquées au marché foncier et aux migrations internes, elle s’intensifie depuis que ces obstacles ont commencé à être progressivement levés dans les années 90. Les villes plus riches, caractérisées par une productivité élevée et en constante progression du fait des économies d’échelle générées par l’urbanisation, enregistrent un afflux massif de migrants. Parallèlement, l’écart de revenus entre zones rurales et urbaines s’est resserré. Néanmoins, l’urbanisation a aussi un coût, notamment illustré par les problèmes de congestion, aggravés par le développement insuffisant de l’offre de transports publics. La demande de surface habitable devrait rester orientée à la hausse sous l’effet de l’amélioration du niveau de vie, ce qui exercera une pression sur les prix des terrains. Cette pression peut être atténuée en assouplissant les restrictions très sévères appliquées à l’usage des terres agricoles à des fins de construction. Pour veiller à une meilleure intégration des migrants dans les villes où ils travaillent, il faut continuer à améliorer leur accès et celui de leurs familles à l’éducation, aux soins de santé et aux autres types de services sociaux, notamment en poursuivant la réforme du système d’enregistrement et en adoptant une réglementation plus axée sur le marché en ce qui concerne la propriété et l’utilisation des terres.

Anglais

Mots-clés: transport public, urbanisation, effets d’agglomération, clivage urbain-rural, migration, logement, congestion, pollution, agriculture, villes, services sociaux, économies d'échelle, hukou, Chine
JEL: Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics / Household Analysis / Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics: Regional Migration; Regional Labor Markets; Population; Neighborhood Characteristics; Health, Education, and Welfare / Welfare, Well-Being, and Poverty / Welfare, Well-Being, and Poverty: Other; Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics / Regional Government Analysis / Regional Government Analysis: Land Use and Other Regulations; Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics / Household Analysis / Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics: Government Policy; Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth / Economic Development / Economic Development: Urban, Rural, Regional, and Transportation Analysis; Housing; Infrastructure; Economic Systems / Socialist Systems and Transitional Economies / Socialist Systems and Transitional Economies: Performance and Prospects; Public Economics / National Government Expenditures and Related Policies / National Government Expenditures and Education; Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics / Household Analysis / Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics: Housing Demand; Economic Systems / Socialist Systems and Transitional Economies / Socialist Systems and Transitional Economies: Natural Resources; Energy; Environment; Public Economics / National Government Expenditures and Related Policies / National Government Expenditures and Welfare Programs; Economic History / Labor and Consumers, Demography, Education, Health, Welfare, Income, Wealth, Religion, and Philanthropy / Economic History: Labor and Consumers, Demography, Education, Health, Welfare, Income, Wealth, Religion, and Philanthropy: Asia including Middle East; Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics / Agriculture / Land Ownership and Tenure; Land Reform; Land Use; Irrigation; Agriculture and Environment; Public Economics / National Government Expenditures and Related Policies / National Government Expenditures and Related Policies: Infrastructures; Other Public Investment and Capital Stock; Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics / General Regional Economics / Size and Spatial Distributions of Regional Economic Activity; Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics / Transportation Economics / Transportation: Demand, Supply, and Congestion; Travel Time; Safety and Accidents; Transportation Noise; Public Economics / National Government Expenditures and Related Policies / Social Security and Public Pensions; Public Economics / Publicly Provided Goods / Public Goods; Economic Systems / Socialist Systems and Transitional Economies / Socialist Systems and Transitional Economies: Planning, Coordination, and Reform; Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics / Regional Government Analysis / Regional Development Planning and Policy; Labor and Demographic Economics / Mobility, Unemployment, Vacancies, and Immigrant Workers / Geographic Labor Mobility; Immigrant Workers; Labor and Demographic Economics / Demand and Supply of Labor / Labor Force and Employment, Size, and Structure; Law and Economics / Other Substantive Areas of Law / Other Substantive Areas of Law: Other; Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics / Real Estate Markets, Spatial Production Analysis, and Firm Location / Housing Supply and Markets; Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics / Real Estate Markets, Spatial Production Analysis, and Firm Location / Production Analysis and Firm Location: Government Policy; Law and Economics / Basic Areas of Law / Property Law; Public Economics / National Government Expenditures and Related Policies / National Government Expenditures and Health; Public Economics / Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue / Taxation and Subsidies: Externalities; Redistributive Effects; Environmental Taxes and Subsidies; Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics / Transportation Economics / Transportation Economics: Government Pricing and Policy; Labor and Demographic Economics / Demographic Economics / Demographic Trends, Macroeconomic Effects, and Forecasts; Microeconomics / Welfare Economics / Equity, Justice, Inequality, and Other Normative Criteria and Measurement; Economic Systems / Socialist Systems and Transitional Economies / Socialist Systems and Transitional Economies: Urban, Rural, and Regional Economics; Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics / General Regional Economics / Land Use Patterns; Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth / Economywide Country Studies / Economywide Country Studies: Asia including Middle East; Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics / Environmental Economics / Air Pollution; Water Pollution; Noise; Hazardous Waste; Solid Waste; Recycling; Public Economics / State and Local Government; Intergovernmental Relations / Intergovernmental Relations; Federalism; Secession; Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics / Agriculture / Agricultural Policy; Food Policy; Economic Systems / Socialist Systems and Transitional Economies / Socialist Systems and Transitional Economies: Political Economy; Property Rights; Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics / General Regional Economics / Regional Economic Activity: Growth, Development, Environmental Issues, and Changes
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