OECD Competition Assessment Reviews: Greece

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The work undertaken by the Greek authorities in recent years to reinforce competition law and the Hellenic Competition Commission, to simplify business administration and to liberalise professional services have demonstrated the political willingness to address the problem of existing regulatory barriers to competition that have contributed to holding back the economic recovery.

The OECD Competition Assessment Project, through the scrutiny of legislation in four sectors of the Greek economy, food processing, retail trade, building materials and tourism, has identified 336 areas where particular reform can be undertaken, from a total of 539 provisions that were selected using the OECD Competition Assessment Toolkit.

If our recommendations are implemented, benefits to consumers in Greece and to the Greek economy should arise in all four sectors. Throughout this report, we seek to identify the sources of those benefits and where possible provide quantitative estimates. Estimates are made on the basis of experiences of deregulation in other countries in some instances, or by relating conservative estimates of efficiency gains to the overall size of the business activity affected.




Tourism is both an important contributor to the Greek economy and, as an activity, touches on almost every aspect of the economy. The assessment studied legislation in the transport sector as well as in a variety of special tourism activities such as car racing tracks, athletic and coaching tourism, convention and conference centres and therapeutic tourism. Restrictions on smaller hotels, such as price approvals and legislation against improvements were also addressed. Restrictions on cruises, recreational vessels and marinas, as well as requirements for price notification, barriers to entry and geographical restrictions arose from attempts to set minimum quality standards, protect consumers and prevent certain activities from competing. Uncertainty for investors and barriers to entry reduce incentives to lower prices or offer better quality services. The intervention of the state or central organisations in the economic activity of various sectors of the industry, such as accommodation, is an effective barrier to competition. The benefits to the Greek economy from lifting restrictions on cruises and marinas are estimated at EUR 67.3 million annually.


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