The Political Economy of Biodiversity Policy Reform

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This report provides insights on the political economy of biodiversity related policy reforms. It draws on existing literature and four new case studies covering the French tax on pesticides, agricultural subsidy reform in Switzerland, EU payments to Mauritania and Guinea-Bissau to finance marine protected areas via conservation trust funds, and individually transferable quotas for fisheries in Iceland. Each case study focusses on the drivers of reform, the types of obstacles encountered, key features of the policy reform, and the lessons learned from the reform experience.



Executive summary

The need for more widespread and ambitious policy instruments for biodiversity conservation and sustainable use, including the reform of incentives that are harmful to biodiversity, is widely acknowledged. Progress, however, has not been as rapid and effective as needed. Global biodiversity trends continue to decline and the OECD Environmental Outlook to 2050 projects this to continue under a business-as-usual scenario (OECD, 2012). Loss of biodiversity and associated ecosystems in turn, results in adverse and costly impacts on human health, well-being and economic growth.


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