Test No. 476: In vitro Mammalian Cell Gene Mutation Test

The in vitro mammalian cell gene mutation test can be used to detect gene mutations induced by chemical substances. In the cell lines the most commonly-used genetic endpoints measure mutation at thymidine kinase (TK) and hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT), and a transgene of xanthineguanine phosphoribosyl transferase (XPRT). The TK, HPRT and XPRT mutation tests detect different spectra of genetic events.

Cells in suspension or monolayer culture are exposed to, at least four analysable concentrations of the test substance, both with and without metabolic activation, for a suitable period of time. They are subcultured to determine cytotoxicity and to allow phenotypic expression prior to mutant selection. It is recommended to utilise at least 106cells. Cytotoxicity is usually determined by measuring the relative cloning efficiency (survival) or relative total growth of the cultures after the treatment period. The treated cultures are maintained in growth medium for a sufficient period of time, characteristic of each selected locus and cell type, to allow near-optimal phenotypic expression of induced mutations. Mutant frequency is determined by seeding known numbers of cells in medium containing the selective agent to detect mutant cells, and in medium without selective agent to determine the cloning efficiency (viability). After a suitable incubation time, colonies are counted.

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