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Sustainable Business Models for Water Supply and Sanitation in Small Towns and Rural Settlements in Kazakhstan

image of Sustainable Business Models for Water Supply and Sanitation in Small Towns and Rural Settlements in Kazakhstan

This report assesses the Republic of Kazakhstan’s significant efforts to improve water supply and sanitation (WSS) services over the past 15 years, notably in terms of ambitious target-setting, implementation of a sound water tariff policy, and significant investment in the rehabilitation and development of relevant infrastructure. Generally speaking, the absence of updated data on WSS institutional development is a limiting factor for further policy and programme development in the field, including in Kazakhstan. The monitoring and evaluation system proposed in this report aims to help assess progress in the WSS sector and serve as a basis for any necessary corrective measures.

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Recommended business models for Water Supply and Sanitation in Kazakhstan

Due to the low population density in Kazakhstan, individual (servicing just one household) WSS systems will be used in many small and remote villages. Only areas with sufficient density of population and of economic activity are or could be served by centralised (piped) WSS systems requiring professional operators. For such areas, the key recommended WSS business model is the Rayon Vodocanal model; while other communities might have to use alternative business models that can complement the Rayon Vodocanal model, such as: service delivery by community-based organisations (CBOs) or by small-scale private operators or by multi-service utilities (typically in towns). All these models are discussed below, one by one. The proposed Rayon WSS Master Plan should help define the communities that will be included in the service area of the Rayon Vodocanal, and those that will be served by other complementary models, back-stopped by the Rayon Vodocanal.

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