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Sustainable Business Models for Water Supply and Sanitation in Small Towns and Rural Settlements in Kazakhstan

image of Sustainable Business Models for Water Supply and Sanitation in Small Towns and Rural Settlements in Kazakhstan

This report assesses the Republic of Kazakhstan’s significant efforts to improve water supply and sanitation (WSS) services over the past 15 years, notably in terms of ambitious target-setting, implementation of a sound water tariff policy, and significant investment in the rehabilitation and development of relevant infrastructure. Generally speaking, the absence of updated data on WSS institutional development is a limiting factor for further policy and programme development in the field, including in Kazakhstan. The monitoring and evaluation system proposed in this report aims to help assess progress in the WSS sector and serve as a basis for any necessary corrective measures.

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Prevailing Business Models for Water Supply and Sanitation in Small Towns and Rural Areas in Kazakhstan

This section discusses existing WSS business models in small towns and rural areas in Kazakhstan. As official data on the legal and institutional organisation of WSS operators were not available, the information presented here is based on the knowledge and experience of local project experts.

The existing WSS business models in small towns and rural areas in Kazakhstan are the following:

• a large farm or an agricultural enterprise

• a small town water utility

• a multi-services utility

• a rayon water utility

• grouped water mains as a source of water

• an individual private operator under a service contract or lease or concession agreement (public-private partnership model)

• a community-based organisation (e.g. rural consumer co-operatives).

According to national experts, large farm or individual private operators that provide WSS services are the main model of service delivery in many small towns and villages (representing about 61% of the total rural population). Small town water utilities, including multi-services utility and rayon water utility, service around 33% of the rural population. Community-based organisations serve only 6% of the rural population.

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