Risks and Management of Dioxins and Dioxin-like Compounds in Baltic Sea Fish: An Integrated Assessment

A Knowledge Evaluation and Discussion Document

image of Risks and Management of Dioxins and Dioxin-like Compounds in Baltic Sea Fish: An Integrated Assessment

Dioxins, PCBs and related toxic compounds also in Baltic Sea fish have caused much interest, concern and activity. Dioxins have become a 'boundary object' uniting many disciplines and acting as a symbol also for other concerns and issues. This report, produced in a cooperative project of the Nordic Council of Ministers, synthesizes and evaluates knowledge relevant for assessing and managing risks from dioxin-like compounds in Baltic fish, and analyzes aspects of these risks and their management. It clarifies what risks are associated with 'dioxins' in this context and what can be, ought to be, has been and is being done about them and on what grounds. The intended audiences include experts in the disciplines involved, such as toxicology and chemistry, public health and food safety, and fisheries and environmental management. The report may also be of interest, and is hoped to be of use, to other professionals and students, to decision makers in various realms, even to lay persons, considering the broad and keen interest in the topic field.



Hazard and risk identification and framing

Risks from Baltic Sea fish dioxins are formed in chains of events that are divided roughly in sources, transport and receptors; they are also commonly divided in exposures and effects. Additionally, risk management stages may be included. A division between the sea and its surroundings may further be made in framing the system and event chains in risk formation. These in relation to Baltic fish dioxins (Fig. 4) do not constitute a single chain but include interacting elements, co-factors and feedbacks. In this simplified conceptualization, e.g. the levels of management (cf. 6, 8) and the links in the process have not been detailed.


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