Promoting Clean Urban Public Transportation and Green Investment in Kazakhstan

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This report discusses the main results of a project on how to reduce air pollution from urban public transport in Kazakhstan, by providing an analysis for designing a green public investment programme in this sector. This sector represents an opportunity for Kazakhstan to address key objectives in its environmental and climate-related policies as part of the country’s ambitions to transition to a green economic path of development. The investment programme is also designed to support the modernisation of the urban transport fleet in the country and stimulate the domestic market to shift to modern buses powered by clean fuels. The programme is foreseen to be implemented in two phases: the first covers the cities of Kostanay and Shymkent and the second, all major urban centres in Kazakhstan. These investments are expected to result in significant air improvement.

English Also available in: Russian

Executive summary

The vehicle transport sector is responsible for 88% of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the transport sector and contributes to the already high carbon intensity of the Kazakh economy. Most of the transport vehicles in Kazakhstan are more than ten years old. Cars and buses run mostly on diesel (about 80% of the fuel used) while diesel engines hardly correspond to the Euro IV standard compared to Euro VI used in Europe. These structural and technical features make vehicle transport an important contributor to the very high level of air pollution in many cities in Kazakhstan.


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