OECD Environmental Performance Reviews: Spain 2004

image of OECD Environmental Performance Reviews: Spain 2004

This review of Spain’s environmental performance takes stock of Spain’s environmental performance since the last review done in 1997.  It finds that despite substantial increases in GDP, tourism, construction, population density in coastal areas, and road freight transport, progress has been made in decoupling some environmental pressures from economic growth and in developing environmental infrastructure.  Nevertheless, Spain faces important challenges related to high energy intensity, high water use intensity, and increasing CO2 emissions and municipal waste.  This report makes 46 recommendations to help strengthen Spain’s environmental performance in the context of sustainable development. 

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Conclusions and Recommendations

Spain’s GDP has grown by 36% in the last ten years. It is now the ninth highest in the world. GDP per capita has also risen and is now closer to the EU 15 average, partially owing to EU support. In many instances economic growth has led to increased pressures on the environment in Spain, in terms of both pollution and use of natural resources (e.g. water, land). This partly reflects...


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