OECD Environmental Performance Reviews: Peru 2017

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The Environmental Performance Review programme of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) provides independent assessments of countries’ progress in achieving their domestic and international environmental policy commitments, together with policy-relevant recommendations. The reviews are conducted to promote peer learning, enhance governments’ accountability to each other and to the public, and to improve countries’ environmental performance, individually and collectively. The OECD has been conducting these reviews since 1992, supported by a broad range of economic and environmental data. Each cycle of the Environmental Performance Reviews covers all OECD member countries and selected partner countries. The most recent reviews include: Colombia (2014), Spain (2015), Brazil (2015) and Chile (2016). The Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC) has promoted environmental reviews in Latin America and the Caribbean, in cooperation with the OECD, and has undertaken similar assessments in the states of Amazonas and Acre in Brazil.

Part I. Progress toward sustainable development

Chapter 1. Background and key environmental trends

Chapter 2. Policy-making environment

Chapter 3. Economy and the environment

Chapter 4. Society and environment

Chapter 5. International co-operation and commitments

Part II. Environmental quality of life

Chapter 6. Air quality management

Chapter 7. Management of waste and chemicals

Chapter 8. Water resources

Chapter 9. Biodiversity

Part III. Use of natural resources base

Chapter 10. Farming and forestry

Chapter 11. Fisheries

Chapter 12. Mining sector

Annex I: Selected Data

English Spanish


Executive summary

Peru is a megabiodiverse country, with a variety of tropical and subtropical climates, the Humboldt current flowing along its coast, the Andes mountains running from north to south and the Amazon in its eastern part, all of which give it a great diversity of ecosystems and natural wealth. Peru has the second largest extent of Amazon forest and more than half of its surface area is forested. Peru is also the world’s largest single species fisheries producer (anchovies) and has huge reserves of ores and hydrocarbons: it is Latin America's largest gold producer and the world's third largest producer of copper. The country is experiencing a remarkable economic growth thanks to macroeconomic stability, trade and investment openness and natural-resource-based exports. However, it has failed to resolve its acute social inequality and the pressures on its biodiversity and ecosystems. Moreover, Peru is highly vulnerable to environmental changes, particularly those related to climate change and extreme events such as the El Niño phenomenon.


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