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OECD Environmental Performance Reviews: Greece 2020

image of OECD Environmental Performance Reviews: Greece 2020

Greece has undergone extensive reforms to cope with a deep recession over the past decade. It has made progress in decoupling air pollutant emissions from GDP and improving the conservation status of natural habitats. However, the country faces challenges in managing waste and water, and addressing air pollution. It is highly vulnerable to the impact of climate change. The energy mix has shifted towards cleaner fuels, but the economy strongly relies on fossil fuels. Progress towards sustainable development requires effective implementation of ambitious climate mitigation and adaptation policies, strengthening environmental governance and enhancing coherence between environmental and energy, transport, agriculture and tourism policies.

This is the third Environmental Performance Review of Greece. It evaluates progress towards sustainable development and green growth, with special features on climate change mitigation and adaptation, and biodiversity conservation and sustainable use.

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Environmental performance: trends and recent developments

During Greece’s long recession, emissions of greenhouse gases and most other air pollutants declined faster than GDP. As the economy recovers, it is a challenge to improve well-being, income and employment while reducing poverty and keeping environmental pressures low. Agriculture, transport, tourism and fisheries are putting pressures on biodiversity. This chapter provides a snapshot of key environmental trends in Greece over the past decade. It presents the main economic and social developments and reviews progress in reducing the energy and carbon intensity of the economy, in making the transition to a resource-efficient economy and in managing the natural asset base. It also summarises key policy developments in areas including energy and climate, air, water and waste.

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