OECD Environmental Performance Reviews: Estonia 2017

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OECD Environmental Performance Reviews provide independent assessments of countries’ progress towards their environmental policy objectives. Reviews promote peer learning, enhance government accountability, and provide targeted recommendations aimed at improving environmental performance, individually and collectively. They are supported by a broad range of economic and environmental data, and evidence-based analysis. Each cycle of Environmental Performance Reviews covers all OECD countries and selected partner economies. The most recent reviews include Chile and France (2016).

This report is the first Environmental Performance Review of Estonia. It evaluates progress towards sustainable development and green growth, with a focus on waste and materials management, and mining and the environment.

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Even with a small territory, Estonia has large oil shale reserves and extensive forest and water resources. Its EU membership has led to the incorporation of EU directives into domestic environmental legislation and to a greater interconnection with European energy networks. Estonia has achieved considerable progress in decoupling environmental pressures from economic growth. However, its dependence on oil shale, which dominates the energy mix, makes its economy very carbon- and energy-intensive, with low material productivity. Greenhouse gas emissions have risen significantly over the last decade. Estonia will need to align its energy and climate policies to reverse this trend and comply with its commitments under the 2015 Paris Agreement.


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