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OECD Environmental Performance Reviews: Canada 2017

image of OECD Environmental Performance Reviews: Canada 2017

Canada, the world's second largest country by area, has abundant natural resources. Its vast territory includes large tracts of undisturbed wilderness. However, urbanisation and agriculture are putting pressure on the natural asset base. Since 2000, Canada has made progress in decoupling economic growth from air pollution, energy consumption and GHG emissions, but it remains one of the most energy- and emissions-intensive economies in the OECD. Further progress is needed to transition to a green, low-carbon economy.

This is the third Environmental Performance Review of Canada. It evaluates progress towards sustainable development and green growth, with special features on climate change mitigation and urban wastewater management.

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Urban wastewater management

This chapter examines urban wastewater management policies in Canada over the last decade. It discusses recent developments that have strengthened the policy framework. These include the Canada-wide Strategy for the Management of Municipal Wastewater Effluent and the first national regulation for wastewater treatment. The chapter highlights some of the most salient challenges that still need to be tackled, including the detrimental situation of Indigenous peoples, the lack of a sustainable financing strategy and the need to swiftly adapt to a changing climate and precipitation patterns. It suggests areas for improvement in the use of pricing instruments and of incentives to explore innovative approaches to manage waste- and rainwater, among others.

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