OECD Environmental Performance Reviews: Canada 2017

image of OECD Environmental Performance Reviews: Canada 2017

Canada, the world's second largest country by area, has abundant natural resources. Its vast territory includes large tracts of undisturbed wilderness. However, urbanisation and agriculture are putting pressure on the natural asset base. Since 2000, Canada has made progress in decoupling economic growth from air pollution, energy consumption and GHG emissions, but it remains one of the most energy- and emissions-intensive economies in the OECD. Further progress is needed to transition to a green, low-carbon economy.

This is the third Environmental Performance Review of Canada. It evaluates progress towards sustainable development and green growth, with special features on climate change mitigation and urban wastewater management.

English Also available in: French


Canada, the world’s second largest country by area and the eleventh largest economy in the OECD, has abundant natural resources. It is one of the world’s biggest energy producers, as well as a major producer and exporter of agricultural products. Its vast territory hosts a great diversity of ecosystems and large tracts of it are undisturbed wilderness. This third Environmental Performance Review of Canada shows that it has successfully decoupled several environmental pressures from economic growth. Yet it faces challenges associated with high energy and resource consumption, high greenhouse gas emissions, and local pressures regarding biodiversity and water resources. While most Canadians enjoy clean air and good access to environmental services, many Indigenous communities lack equal access to essential services while being more exposed to environmental risks.

English Also available in: French

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