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OECD Environmental Performance Reviews: Canada 2017

image of OECD Environmental Performance Reviews: Canada 2017

Canada, the world's second largest country by area, has abundant natural resources. Its vast territory includes large tracts of undisturbed wilderness. However, urbanisation and agriculture are putting pressure on the natural asset base. Since 2000, Canada has made progress in decoupling economic growth from air pollution, energy consumption and GHG emissions, but it remains one of the most energy- and emissions-intensive economies in the OECD. Further progress is needed to transition to a green, low-carbon economy.

This is the third Environmental Performance Review of Canada. It evaluates progress towards sustainable development and green growth, with special features on climate change mitigation and urban wastewater management.

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Environmental governance and management

Canada has improved the effectiveness of multi-level environmental governance and enhanced the engagement of Indigenous peoples in environmental decision making. However, more needs to be done to build on recent progress in these areas and adopt good international practices in environmental assessment and permitting. This chapter analyses Canada’s environmental governance system, including the institutional and regulatory frameworks and measures to ensure compliance with environmental law. It also assesses progress in promoting environmental democracy through public participation, access to information, justice and education.

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