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OECD Environmental Performance Reviews: Canada 2004

image of OECD Environmental Performance Reviews: Canada 2004

OECD's comprehensive 2004 report on Canada's environmental policies and programmes systematically examines policy related to air, water, and nature/biodiversity as well as the interface between environmental policy and economic policy, social policy, and specific sectors.  It finds that while Canada has made satisfactory progress since 1985, there are still significant challenges, and the report makes specific recommendations for more use of economic instruments and use of the polluter and user pays principles, rationalising water governance, strengthening nature protection, reducing energy intensity, implementing climate change policies, reviewing environmentally related taxes, and implementing marine and aid commitments.

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Conclusions and Recommendations

The Canadian economy grew by 39% overall between 1990 and 2002 (despite an economic slowdown, along with the global downturn in 2001) while the population increased by 13% to reach 31 million today. GDP per capita is among the highest in the OECD area. With trade liberalisation Canada’s economy has become more export-oriented and more closely linked to the economy of the United States; the US now accounts for three-quarters of Canadian exports and two-thirds of its imports. Natural resources continue to make an important contribution to Canada’s economy. Agriculture, forestry and fishing represent 13.6% of GDP. Canada accounts for about 40% of world exports of softwood ...

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