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OECD Environmental Outlook to 2030

image of OECD Environmental Outlook to 2030

The OECD Environmental Outlook to 2030 provides analyses of economic and environmental trends to 2030, and simulations of policy actions to address the key challenges. Without new policies, we risk irreversibly damaging the environment and the natural resource base needed to support economic growth and well-being. The costs of policy inaction are high.

But the Outlook shows that tackling the key environmental problems we face today -- including climate change, biodiversity loss, water scarcity and the health impacts of pollution -- is both achievable and affordable. It highlights a mix of policies that can address these challenges in a cost-effective way. The focus of this Outlook is expanded from the 2001 edition to reflect developments in both OECD countries and Brazil, Russia, India, Indonesia, China, South Africa (BRIICS), and how they might better co-operate on global and local environmental problem-solving.

"An indispensable addition to the expanding body of environmental literature...Essential"

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Population Dynamics and Demographics

This chapter examines the close relationship between population growth and demographics and the environment. Between 2005 and 2030, world population is expected to grow from 6.5 to 8.2 billion people. The enlarging population, mostly in developing countries, will put more pressure on the environment through increased production and consumption. The demographic features of ageing and migration are particularly relevant from an environmental perspective. Ageing populations have specific consumption patterns, some of which – such as expanded leisure time and income for travel – are associated with increasing environmental impacts. Migration can exacerbate pressures on local environments by increasing density in receiving regions. Environmental conditions will also influence population dynamics, such as through environmental refugees and environment-related disease outbreaks. The number of environmental refugees is expected to grow in the coming decades as a result of the impacts of climate change.

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