OECD Environmental Outlook to 2030

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The OECD Environmental Outlook to 2030 provides analyses of economic and environmental trends to 2030, and simulations of policy actions to address the key challenges. Without new policies, we risk irreversibly damaging the environment and the natural resource base needed to support economic growth and well-being. The costs of policy inaction are high.

But the Outlook shows that tackling the key environmental problems we face today -- including climate change, biodiversity loss, water scarcity and the health impacts of pollution -- is both achievable and affordable. It highlights a mix of policies that can address these challenges in a cost-effective way. The focus of this Outlook is expanded from the 2001 edition to reflect developments in both OECD countries and Brazil, Russia, India, Indonesia, China, South Africa (BRIICS), and how they might better co-operate on global and local environmental problem-solving.

"An indispensable addition to the expanding body of environmental literature...Essential"


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Significant water scarcities already exist in some regions of the OECD and many regions of non-OECD countries. More than 3.9 billion people (47% of the world population) are expected to live in areas with severe water stress by 2030, mostly in non-OECD countries. This chapter examines trends and projections in water stress, public water supply, urban waste water treatment, nitrogen pollution and soil erosion by water. It highlights the good policy principles to address the main water challenges. Much progress remains to be made to integrate water management into sectoral (e.g. agriculture) and land use policies, ensure a more consistent application of the polluter pays and user pays principles through water pricing and reduce subsidies that increase water problems.

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