OECD Environmental Outlook to 2030

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The OECD Environmental Outlook to 2030 provides analyses of economic and environmental trends to 2030, and simulations of policy actions to address the key challenges. Without new policies, we risk irreversibly damaging the environment and the natural resource base needed to support economic growth and well-being. The costs of policy inaction are high.

But the Outlook shows that tackling the key environmental problems we face today -- including climate change, biodiversity loss, water scarcity and the health impacts of pollution -- is both achievable and affordable. It highlights a mix of policies that can address these challenges in a cost-effective way. The focus of this Outlook is expanded from the 2001 edition to reflect developments in both OECD countries and Brazil, Russia, India, Indonesia, China, South Africa (BRIICS), and how they might better co-operate on global and local environmental problem-solving.

"An indispensable addition to the expanding body of environmental literature...Essential"


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This chapter examines agriculture’s impact on the environment. It outlines key trends and projected developments in the agricultural sector and the environmental impacts of these developments, and assesses policy options that could reduce negative environmental pressures from the sector. Agriculture is responsible for about 40% of land and freshwater use in OECD countries, and 70% of freshwater withdrawals worldwide. Currently, environmental pressures in OECD countries from agriculture are broadly stabilising, but they are increasing elsewhere, especially in those economies where population and economic growth will be largest to 2030. Measures that could help reduce agriculture’s harmful impact on the environment include policies to encourage more efficient use of water resources for agriculture (e.g. through moving towards full cost recovery water pricing) and continuing to de-couple support to farmers from production and environmentally harmful input use.

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