OECD Inventory of Support Measures for Fossil Fuels: Country Notes

image of OECD Inventory of Support Measures for Fossil Fuels: Country Notes

This new web format for Country Notes on Fossil Fuel Support provides interactive on-line access to the latest data from the OECD Inventory of Support Measures for Fossil Fuels by country – identifying and estimating the value of support arising from policies that encourage the production or consumption of fossil fuels. The web version allows users to download, share and play with the data. Interactive graphics enable data visualisation, in national currency, by beneficiary and by energy product. These Country Notes provide, for each of the 50 economies covered in the Inventory, a snapshot of energy market structure, the current state of energy prices and taxes, and recent developments and trends in fossil fuel support. Data and country notes for the EU Eastern Partnership (EaP) countries have been collected and prepared as part of the GREEN Action Task Force.



Estonia is well endowed with fossil fuels mainly in the form of oil shale. Oil shale was historically the source of electricity, supplying around 80% of the electricity consumed in Estonia in 2018. The use of oil shale has been decreasing, dropping to 49% in 2021. Meanwhile, the use of renewable energy sources have been increasing mainly in the form of biomass, wind energy and solar PV. The oil shale based electricity production has undergone major changes with opening of the new Auvere Power Plant in 2018 and the closing of old ones. Estonia imports most of the natural gas and petroleum products it consumes. Imported natural gas is mainly used for the purposes of heat generation in district heating and industrial boilers.


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