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Nordic perspectives on the Gothenburg Protocol to Abate Acidification, Eutrophication and Ground-level Ozone

image of Nordic perspectives on the Gothenburg Protocol to Abate Acidification, Eutrophication and Ground-level Ozone

The 1999 Gothenburg Protocol to Abate Acidification, Eutrophication and Ground-level Ozone, with focus on emissions of NOX, SOX, NH3, and VOC, is the latest protocol under UNECE's Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution. This report offers a Nordic perspective on implementation of the protocol in terms of the measures that have been introduced in the Nordic countries, the effects of these measures as well as how the reductions agreed under the protocol may be attained.

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What next?

As referred to in section 4, the initial phase of air pollution protocols in the 1980s adopted flat-rate numerical reduction obligations which were criticized for their lack of cost-effectiveness. The current phase of the Gothenburg Protocol and the NEC Directive is based, in principle, on the critical load concept and the RAINS model, which have translated the detrimental effects into national emissions ceilings in terms of least-cost optimization (see also section 5.6 below).

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