Globalisation, Transport and the Environment

image of Globalisation, Transport and the Environment

What impact has globalisation had on transport? And what have been the consequences for the environment? This book aims to answer these questions and more. It looks in detail at how globalisation has affected activity levels in maritime shipping, aviation, and road and rail freight, and assesses the impact that changes in activity levels have had on the environment. The book also discusses policy instruments that can be used to address negative environmental impacts, both from an economic perspective and from the point of view of international law.


Related reading

Environmental Outlook to 2030 (2008)

The Economics of Climate Change Mitigation: Policies and Options for Global Action beyond 2012 (2009)

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International Road and Rail Freight Transport

Environmental Impacts of Increased Activity Levels

This chapter assesses the environmental impacts of increased international road and rail freight transport – focussing on air emissions and noise. It gives an overview of major trends and of the main drivers behind them. In addition, this chapter briefly discusses the main technical and non-technical measures for tackling the increasing environmental impacts. The chapter explores the developments in emission factors of road and rail vehicles, particularly the standards for reducing pollutant emissions and the differences among the emissions of the various modes. In the last decades, there has been increasing evidence that emissions of greenhouse gas contributes to the effect of global warming; the emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the burning of fossil fuels is a major contributor. For the transport sector, greenhouse gas emissions are dominated by the CO2 emissions from burning fossil fuels. The CO2 emissions of international road freight transport are increasing all over the world, and there is not yet a sign that this trend is to be curbed soon. The chapter looks at impacts from pollutant emissions on various problems related to air quality (health, building and material damages, crops and ecosystems), and at health and nuisance impacts from noise. A mix of measures, like increased motor fuel taxes, stricter fuel efficiency standards for vehicles, promotion of alternative fuels and logistical improvements, is needed.

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