Globalisation, Transport and the Environment

image of Globalisation, Transport and the Environment

What impact has globalisation had on transport? And what have been the consequences for the environment? This book aims to answer these questions and more. It looks in detail at how globalisation has affected activity levels in maritime shipping, aviation, and road and rail freight, and assesses the impact that changes in activity levels have had on the environment. The book also discusses policy instruments that can be used to address negative environmental impacts, both from an economic perspective and from the point of view of international law.


Related reading

Environmental Outlook to 2030 (2008)

The Economics of Climate Change Mitigation: Policies and Options for Global Action beyond 2012 (2009)

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International Maritime Shipping

Environmental Impacts of Increased Activity Levels

It is estimated that 80% of the maritime traffic is in the northern hemisphere, with 32% in the Atlantic, 29% in the Pacific, 14% in the Indian and 5% in the Mediterranean Oceans. The remaining 20% of the traffic in the southern hemisphere is approximately equally distributed among the Atlantic, the Pacific and the Indian Oceans. This chapter addresses the environmental impacts of the shipping activity. It explores the ongoing scientific debate regarding both the historic and the current fuel use in the sector, which has a direct relevance for the environmental impacts of the sector. The chapter describes modelling of air emissions from shipping and the geographically resolved emission inventory. It examines atmospheric impacts. Emission of pollutants to the air from a ship is often chemically transformed to secondary species and mixes with ambient air. The chapter explores the impact on pollution levels and climate; for example, the effect on surface ozone shows a profound seasonality at northern latitudes. In closing, it looks at future impacts. Most scenarios for the near future, the next 10-20 years, indicate that regulations and measures to abate emissions will be outweighed by an increase in traffic, resulting in a global increase in emissions.

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