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Globalisation, Transport and the Environment

image of Globalisation, Transport and the Environment

What impact has globalisation had on transport? And what have been the consequences for the environment? This book aims to answer these questions and more. It looks in detail at how globalisation has affected activity levels in maritime shipping, aviation, and road and rail freight, and assesses the impact that changes in activity levels have had on the environment. The book also discusses policy instruments that can be used to address negative environmental impacts, both from an economic perspective and from the point of view of international law.

 

Related reading

Environmental Outlook to 2030 (2008)

The Economics of Climate Change Mitigation: Policies and Options for Global Action beyond 2012 (2009)

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International Air Transport

Environmental Impacts of Increased Activity Levels

This chapter reviews the literature on the environmental impacts of aviation, discusses trends in emission patterns and comments upon how the external cost of aviation is estimated in various studies. The purpose of the chapter is to assess how developments in the aviation sector in the last few decades have impacted on the environment, and what this means for transport and environmental policy. The chapter explores how hub-and-spoke networks can lead to environmental benefits because of economies-of-scale in environmental terms. Passengers are concentrated on a few routes, so that larger aircraft may be used. But transfer passengers fly longer distances, and take off and land twice, so that they have a relatively large environmental impact. The chapter explores policy instruments, such as compensation regulation. A number of factors are examined: noise (people are asked what they are willing to pay to experience less aviation noise); emissions (damage to human health, damage to buildings, reduced visibility, damage to forests, crops and fisheries); and accidents.

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