Existing Default Values and Recommendations for Exposure Assessment

A Nordic Exposure Group Project 2011

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Default values are often used in exposure assessments e.g. in modelling because of lack of actually measured data. The quality of the exposure assessment outcome is therefore heavily dependent on the validity and representativeness this input data. Today the used default factors consist of a wide range of more or less well-documented values originating from many different sources. The purpose of this report is to give an overview and to evaluate exposure factors that are currently used by the authorities and industry in the exposure assessments for both adults (occupational and consumer exposure) and children in relation to REACH. Another important purpose of the report is to contribute towards a further harmonisation of exposure factors by giving recommendations of most valid and representative defaults. These recommendations can be used besides REACH also in biocide's and plant protection product's exposure assessments. The exposure default values were collected from the relevant European sources (ECHA, Consexpo, EUSES, Biocide TNsG, ECETOC, ExpoFacts) as well as from WHO and US-EPA. The following key default factors selected to the evaluation: body weight, body surface area, inhalation rate, soil and dust ingestion, drinking water, food intake, non-dietary ingestion factors, lifetime expectancy, activity factors and consumer products



Consumer Products

Consumer products may contain toxic or potentially toxic chemical constituents to which people may be exposed as a result of their use. For example, household cleaners can contain ammonia, alcohols, acids, and/or organic solvents which may pose health concerns. Potential routes of exposure to consumer products or chemicals released from consumer products during use include ingestion, inhalation, and dermal contact. These household consumer products include cleaners, solvents, and paints. Non-users, including children, can be passively exposed to chemicals in these products. Since people spend a large amount of time indoors, the use of household chemicals in the indoor environment can be a principal source of exposure. (US-EPA, 2009).


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