Primary energy supply

Primary energy supply is defined as energy production plus energy imports, minus energy exports, minus international bunkers, then plus or minus stock changes. The International Energy Agency (IEA) energy balance methodology is based on the calorific content of the energy commodities and a common unit of account: tonne of oil equivalent (toe). Toe is defined as 107 kilocalories (41.868 gigajoules). This quantity of energy is, within a few per cent, equal to the net heat content of one tonne of crude oil. The difference between the “net” and the “gross” calorific value for each fuel is the latent heat of vaporisation of the water produced during combustion of the fuel. For coal and oil, net calorific value is about 5% less than gross, for most forms of natural and manufactured gas the difference is 9-10%, while for electricity the concept of calorific has no meaning. The IEA calculates balances using the physical energy content method to find the primary energy equivalent. This indicator is measured in million toe and in toe per 1 000 USD.

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Keywords: oil, importation, energy, production, caloric, import, biofuel, waste, coal, exportation, stock, bunker, oil equivalent, oil shock, fuels, export