The Nature of Problem Solving

Using Research to Inspire 21st Century Learning

image of The Nature of Problem Solving

Solving non-routine problems is a key competence in a world full of changes, uncertainty and surprise where we strive to achieve so many ambitious goals. But the world is also full of solutions because of the extraordinary competences of humans who search for and find them. We must explore the world around us in a thoughtful way, acquire knowledge about unknown situations efficiently, and apply new and existing knowledge creatively.

The Nature of Problem Solving presents the background and the main ideas behind the development of the PISA 2012 assessment of problem solving, as well as results from research collaborations that originated within the group of experts who guided the development of this assessment. It illustrates the past, present and future of problem-solving research and how this research is helping educators prepare students to navigate an increasingly uncertain, volatile and ambiguous world.



Log-file data as indicators for problem-solving processes

Centre for Educational Research and Innovation

This chapter describes a theoretical rationale and an empirical methodology for analysing log-file data recorded from students’ interactions with computer-based problem-solving assessment tasks. These analyses can play an important role in the development and refinement of rules for automatically scoring complicated sequences of process data which describe procedural aspects of problem solving. It presents examples of log files and analyses from an interactive problem-solving task. In complex domains where a variety of skills and dispositions may influence performance, interpreting log-file data to infer how students solve problems could provide valid information to help meet their instructional needs.


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