The Nature of Problem Solving

Using Research to Inspire 21st Century Learning

image of The Nature of Problem Solving

Solving non-routine problems is a key competence in a world full of changes, uncertainty and surprise where we strive to achieve so many ambitious goals. But the world is also full of solutions because of the extraordinary competences of humans who search for and find them. We must explore the world around us in a thoughtful way, acquire knowledge about unknown situations efficiently, and apply new and existing knowledge creatively.

The Nature of Problem Solving presents the background and the main ideas behind the development of the PISA 2012 assessment of problem solving, as well as results from research collaborations that originated within the group of experts who guided the development of this assessment. It illustrates the past, present and future of problem-solving research and how this research is helping educators prepare students to navigate an increasingly uncertain, volatile and ambiguous world.



Educational process mining: New possibilities for understanding students' problem-solving skills

Centre for Educational Research and Innovation

The assessment of problem-solving skills heavily relies on computer-based assessment (CBA). In CBA, all student interactions with the assessment system are automatically stored. Using the accumulated data, the individual test-taking processes can be reproduced at any time. Going one step further, recorded processes can even be used to extend the problem-solving assessment itself: the test-taking process-related data gives us the opportunity to 1) examine human-computer interactions via traces left in the log file; 2) map students’ response processes to find distinguishable problem-solving strategies; and 3) discover relationships between students’ activities and task performance. This chapter describes how to extract process-related information from event logs, how to use these data in problem-solving assessments and describes methods which help discover novel, useful information based on individual problem-solving behaviour.


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