Education Policy Outlook 2022

Transforming Pathways for Lifelong Learners

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The effects of Russia’s invasion of Ukraine (with its dramatic impact on energy and food prices), the continuation of the COVID-19 pandemic, and extreme weather events in some parts of the world in 2022 are expected to reverberate into 2023. International implications for education and training include economic uncertainty and tight labour markets, ongoing digital transformation, and continued growth and influence of mass information. These trends challenge education policymakers to transform existing pathways in their countries and economies, so people can become effective lifelong learners to navigate change. Building on the OECD’s Framework of Responsiveness and Resilience in Education Policy, as well as analysis of international policies and practices from over 40 education systems implemented mainly since 2020, this report identifies three areas of policy effort that education policymakers can undertake in 2023: 1) enhancing the relevance of learning pathways; 2) easing transitions throughout learners’ pathways; and 3) nurturing learners’ aspirations. Lessons emerging from recent policy efforts are synthesised into key policy pointers for 2023. The report has been prepared with evidence from the Education Policy Outlook series—the OECD’s analytical observatory of education policy.


School-based career guidance is the predominant approach on average across OECD countries

Percentage of students in schools where the principal reported the following about who has the main responsibility for career guidance for 15-year-old students at school (PISA 2018)


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