Reviews of National Policies for Education: Higher Education in Egypt 2010

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In recent years, the Government of Egypt has driven major reforms for modernising the country. However, Egypt’s higher education system has remained largely unchanged and without fundamental reform of the sector the country will face difficulties in improving its competitiveness.

This independent review of Egypt’s higher education system focuses on areas in need of attention by policy makers and stakeholders, including system steering and institutional governance; student access to higher education; educational quality and effectiveness; research, development and innovation; and finance. It contains an analysis of the system and valuable recommendations which, taken together, represent a major programme of structural and cultural reform of Egyptian higher education over the decade to 2020.

English Also available in: Arabic



This chapter examines the availability of financial resources for higher education and the challenges faced by Egypt as it seeks to expand enrolment and improve quality in a financially sustainable way. Financing is discussed from the viewpoint of resource mobilisation, allocation, utilisation, and equity impact. The chapter closes with a series of findings and recommendations, including recommendations on the need to mobilise additional resources for higher education and implement performance-based allocation mechanisms to stimulate effective and innovative management practices.


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