PISA Data Analysis Manual: SAS, Second Edition

image of PISA Data Analysis Manual: SAS, Second Edition

The OECD Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) surveys collected data on students’ performance in reading, mathematics and science, as well as contextual information on students’ background, home characteristics and school factors which could influence performance. This publication includes detailed information on how to analyse the PISA data, enabling researchers to both reproduce the initial results and to undertake further analyses. In addition to the inclusion of the necessary techniques, the manual also includes a detailed account of the PISA 2006 database. It also includes worked examples providing full syntax in SAS®.


Replicate Weights

In most cases, as mentioned in Chapter 3, national and international surveys collect data from a sample instead of conducting a full census. However, for a particular population, there are thousands, if not millions of possible samples, and each of them does not necessarily yield the same estimates of population statistics. Every generalisation made from a sample, i.e. every estimate of a population statistic, has an associated uncertainty or risk of error. The sampling variance corresponds to the measure of this uncertainty due to sampling.


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