PISA 2018 Results (Volume I)

What Students Know and Can Do

image of PISA 2018 Results (Volume I)

The OECD Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) examines what students know in reading, mathematics and science, and what they can do with what they know. It provides the most comprehensive and rigorous international assessment of student learning outcomes to date. Results from PISA indicate the quality and equity of learning outcomes attained around the world, and allow educators and policy makers to learn from the policies and practices applied in other countries. This is one of six volumes that present the results of the PISA 2018 survey, the seventh round of the triennial assessment. Volume I, What Students Know and Can Do, provides a detailed examination of student performance in reading, mathematics and science, and describes how performance has changed since previous PISA assessments.

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The construction of proficiency scales and of indices from the student context questionnaire

Proficiency scores in reading, mathematics and science are based on student responses to items that represent the assessment framework for each domain (see ). While different students saw different questions, the test design, which ensured a significant overlap of items across different forms, made it possible to construct proficiency scales that are common to all students for each domain. In general, the PISA frameworks assume that a single continuous scale can be used to report overall proficiency in a domain; but this assumption is further verified during scaling (see below).


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