PISA 2018 Results (Volume I)

What Students Know and Can Do

image of PISA 2018 Results (Volume I)

The OECD Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) examines what students know in reading, mathematics and science, and what they can do with what they know. It provides the most comprehensive and rigorous international assessment of student learning outcomes to date. Results from PISA indicate the quality and equity of learning outcomes attained around the world, and allow educators and policy makers to learn from the policies and practices applied in other countries. This is one of six volumes that present the results of the PISA 2018 survey, the seventh round of the triennial assessment. Volume I, What Students Know and Can Do, provides a detailed examination of student performance in reading, mathematics and science, and describes how performance has changed since previous PISA assessments.

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A note about Spain in PISA 2018

Spain’s data met PISA 2018 Technical Standards. However, some data show implausible response behaviour amongst students. Consequently, at the time of publication of this report, the OECD is unable to assure that international, subnational and trend comparisons of Spain’s results lead to valid conclusions about students’ reading proficiency and, more generally, about the education system in Spain. PISA 2018 reading results for Spain are therefore not published in this report and are not included in OECD average results.


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