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PISA 2009 Results: What Makes a School Successful?

Resources, Policies and Practices (Volume IV)

image of PISA 2009 Results: What Makes a School Successful?
This volume of PISA 2009 results examines how human, financial and material resources, and education policies and practices shape learning outcomes. Following an introduction to PISA and a Reader's Guide explaining how to interpret the data, Chapter 1 presents a summary of features shared by "successful" school systems. Chapter 2 details how resources, policies and practices relate to student performance. Chapter 3 provides detailed descriptions and in-depth analyses of selected organisational features (how students are sorted into grades, schools, and programmes, school autonomy, etc.) of schools and systems and how those aspects affect performance. Chapter 4 describes and analyzes key aspects of the learning environment (behaviours, discipline, parental involvement, school leadership, etc.) and how they affect performance.  The final chapter discusses the policy implications of the findings.  Annexes provides detailed statistical data and technical background.

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Technical background

The development of the PISA 2009 reading tasks was co-ordinated by an international consortium of educational research institutions contracted by the OECD, under the guidance of a group of reading experts from participating countries. Participating countries contributed stimulus material and questions, which were reviewed, tried out and refined iteratively over the three years leading up to the administration of the assessment in 2009. The development process involved provisions for several rounds of commentary from participating countries, as well as small-scale piloting and a formal field trial in which samples of 15-year-olds from all participating countries took part. The reading expert group recommended the final selection of tasks, which included material submitted by 21 of the participating countries. The selection was made with regard to both their technical quality, assessed on the basis of their performance in the field trial, and their cultural appropriateness and interest level for 15-year-olds, as judged by the participating countries. Another essential criterion for selecting the set of material as a whole was its fit to the framework described in Volume I, What Students Know and Can Do, to maintain the balance across various categories of text, aspect and situation. Finally, it was carefully ensured that the set of questions covered a range of difficulty, allowing good measurement and description of the reading literacy of all 15-year-old students, from the least proficient to the highly able.

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