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PISA 2009 Results: Learning Trends

Changes in Student Performance Since 2000 (Volume V)

image of PISA 2009 Results: Learning Trends
This volume of PISA 2009 results looks at the progress countries have made in raising student performance and improving equity in the distribution of learning opportunities. Following an Introduction to PISA and a Reader's Guide helping users interpret the data, Chapter 1 summarises overall performance over time.   Chapter 2 looks at trends in reading.  Chapter 3 looks at trends in mathematics and science.  Chapter 4 examines trends in equity. Chapter 5 explores trends in attitudes and student-school relations.  The final chapter analyzes implications for policy. Annexes provide techical background and tables of results.

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Technical background

The development of the PISA 2009 reading tasks was co-ordinated by an international consortium of educational research institutions contracted by the OECD, under the guidance of a group of reading experts from participating countries. Participating countries contributed stimulus material and questions, which were reviewed, tried out and refined iteratively over the three years leading up to the administration of the assessment in 2009. The development process involved provisions for several rounds of commentary from participating countries, as well as small-scale piloting and a formal field trial in which samples of 15-year-olds from all participating countries took part. The reading expert group recommended the final selection of tasks, which included material submitted by 21 of the participating countries. The selection was made with regard to both their technical quality, assessed on the basis of their performance in the field trial, and their cultural appropriateness and interest level for 15-year-olds, as judged by the participating countries. Another essential criterion for selecting the set of material as a whole was its fit to the framework described in Volume 1, What Students Know and Can Do, to maintain the balance across various categories of text, aspect and situation. Finally, it was carefully ensured that the set of questions covered a range of difficulty, allowing good measurement and description of the reading literacy of all 15-year-old students, from the least proficient to the highly able.

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